Common Toxicity Test
Toxicity tests are required to evaluate potential hazards for each product or chemical. Products or their chemicals are evaluated in different types of tests which include eye irritation, skin irritation, skin sensitization, carcinogenicity, genetic toxicity, neurotoxicity, reproductive toxicity, acute oral systemic toxicity.
Draize Eye Test
The Draize eye test is commonly and routinely tested on rabbits. Rabbit are the preferred animal since they have no tear ducts to flush out a foreign substance. The test is intended to predict whether a product or chemical would cause injury to the human eye.
The Draize test involves constraining a rabbit and then placing the substance into one eye of each rabbit and then measuring the effects of the eye over time. The substance is applied at specific intervals for hours or days. The results are recorded and tests usually up to 21 days. Results are recorded which usually include painful burning, bleeding, swollen eyelids, irritated and cloudy eyes, or blindness. Animals subjected to this test suffer extreme pain, and often suffer from broken necks and spines from attempting free themselves from constraints.
These tests involve often placing rabbits in full-body restraints while a substance is applied onto their shaved skin. Skin is often abraded by firmly pressing adhesive tape onto the animal’s body and quickly stripping it off. This is repeated until several layers of skin have been removed.
The inflammatory response is then recorded, which can include burning, itching, intense pain, inflamed skin, ulcers and bleeding. The substance is applied at specific intervals for hours or days. The results are recorded and tests usually up to 21 days. Animals subjected to this test suffer extreme pain, and often suffer from broken necks and spines from attempting free themselves from constraints.
The LD50 Test
The LD50 test stands for the lethal dose (LD) of a given test substance in 50% of the test’s animal population. The LD50 is done to test acute oral systemic toxicity where animals are orally force-fed doses of a certain chemical.
To determine the toxicity of short-term exposure to a product or chemical, the substance is administered to animals in extremely high doses via force-feeding, forced inhalation, or absorption through the skin. Animals in the highest-dose groups often endure extreme pain and suffer from abdominal pain, convulsions, seizures, diarrhoea, paralysis, and bleeding from the nose, mouth, and genitals before they eventually die.